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Main Components of Robots

Robots are manipulative in nature. They are able to pick up, move, improve or cause a new effect on an item. They need major sensitive components to be able to do these tasks automatically. Modern collaborative robots are actually able to detect changes in a working environment and respond accordingly.

This article brings to your understanding 5 main components that are responsible for the smooth running of robots and robotics.

The Control System

Just as human beings respond to their central nervous system, robots respond to a controller which is a computer. The computer acts as the robots central control unit which regulates the working of both the robotic arm and the other main components. In order be able to follow commands, robots are usually programmed using software programs and they only respond according to the specific program.

Information received by the control system is stored on a silicon chip which operates similarly to the human brain’s neurons. Upon receiving all data from the network of the entire system, the robots CPU decides on the next course of action. The system refers to the installed program to make the ideal choice.

Today, robotic engineers have invested time and energy in trying to design robots which will have human intelligence. If these projects succeed, then we could have fully independent robots that can make independent decisions in the near future.


The sensor is responsible for relaying information back to the control system. This information is sent in the form of electric signals and they enable the control system to know the condition of the working area of the robotic arm in order to make the most ideal response. Collaborative robots from https://www.universal-robots.com/ have complex sensors that are able to detect the exact proximity of a human being or any other object that is in the same working environment as the machine. Many modern-day robots are fitted with an infrared radiator which allows them to operate even in the dark.

Without sensors, many robots cannot be able to accomplish much. They are the components that detect force, temperature, position, speed or the proximity of either human beings or other items.

Robotic Arms

As suggested in the name, a robotic arm is more or less like a human arm. It is a robot’s component that is tasked with causing the end result of a robotic action. Just like a human arm is comprised of different joints, a robotic arm has different segments joined together to allow the arm to make different orientations freely. Each joint is able to make upward, downward or sideways movements at different degrees. Simple robotic arms can have 3 joints while complex arms can have as many as seven.

A robotic arm can either be designed to operate independently or as an end-effector of a robot. Many robotic arms resemble a real human arm; they have fingers, elbows, shoulders and even wrists.

Power Suppliers

While human beings need the energy to be able to work, robots need to be powered. The main source of power for robots is electricity. Mobile robots run on rechargeable batteries while the stationary ones run by plugging into an electric socket, just like many other appliances do. Some run on advanced technologies that allow tapping of solar energy through special satellites. Other sources of a robot’s working power include; hydraulic and pneumatic power sources.


Actuators are the components responsible for energy conversion in a robot. They help convert the energy in order to cause a movement. The type of actuators depends on the primary source of a robots energy i.e., whether it is powered by electricity, pneumatic or hydraulic power.


Last but definitely not the least is the end-effectors. An end effector is a component that makes the last interaction in a working environment in order to cause the desired end result. The end-effector of a robot varies according to the task at hand. Some robots have changeable end-effectors that can be changed or adjusted to match specific tasks. Many industrial robots have grippers as the end effectors. These grippers performance mimics that of a human hand.